Monday, May 25, 2020
Reaction Paper Two Nature and NurtureÃ¢â¬â¢s Effect on Behavior Katelyn M. Buchanan Ball State University PSYS 100:002 Hypothesis: The environment a child is raised in has a greater effect on their behavior than the nurture the child receives from their parents. My Initial Hypothesis The influence of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s environment versus the influence of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s parents and home life may not seem to be much of importance to the average individual. Prior to learning more about human psychological development, I too was guilty of not seeing the importance behind the influences effecting an individual. Both nature and nurture seem to have some relevance of importance; however, when taking a step back and looking at the entire picture, one seems to outweigh the other. Ã¢â¬Å"When first born, the brain is like a blank piece of paper. Text appears on the paper when we begin to acquire culture, self identity, and knowledgeÃ¢â¬ (Bereczkei, 2000). Although these factors can be obtained from various elements, I believe that it is oneÃ¢â¬â¢s environment that has the greatest influence. It is our environment that replaces our genetic behaviors, such as association with home and oneÃ¢â¬â¢s parents, with culture and socialization. Although oneÃ¢â¬â ¢s parents and home life does have some importance on the development of an individual, no parent can keep their child completely sheltered from their environment (Voland, 2000). This is why I believe that the nature an individual is exposed to is more effective than theShow MoreRelatedHuman Behavior: Nature vs. Nurture Essay1733 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageshave argued the Nature versus Nurture debate for decades. This debate is about the degree to which our environment and heredity, affects our behavior and developmental stages. According to this debate, nature can be described as, the behavior of a person is occurring because of their genetic makeup. Since the behavior of a person is due to their genetic makeup, then, it (nature) should also influence a personÃ¢â¬â¢s growth and development for the duration of their life. However, the nurture side of the debateRead MoreNature Versus Nurture Research Essay: Violent Behavior1007 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages The nature versus nurture debate is an ongoing debate among social scientists relating to whether ones personality/personal characteristics are the result of his/her inherited genetic traits or the result of environmental factors such as upbringing, social status, financial stability, and more. One of the topics that are discussed among psychologists is the study of violent behavior among people as a whole, and in particular, individuals. Social scientists try to explain why people commit acts ofRead MoreNature vs. Nurture1218 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesdifferent people with different interests and preferences? Or did the environments that they grew up in play a part in making who they are? In the nature vs. nurture controversy, nature proclaims that our genetic make-up plays the primary role in human development, while nurture declares that our environment dictates our development. The nature vs. nurture controversy is an age old question in the scientific and psychological world with both camps having evidence to support their theories. The controversyRead MoreNature Vs. Nurture Debate878 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages are personalities and traits produced by genetics or shaped by the environment? Or, is there a relationship between nature and nurture with regards to child development? The debate continues. While some believe Ã¢â¬Å"nature and nurture work together, others believe they are separate and opposing influencesÃ¢â¬ (McDevitt, 2010). Nature vs Nurture In regards to the nature vs. nurture debate, Ã¢â¬Å"this debate is a major issue in many social science disciplines and is concerned with the influence that biologyRead MoreNature Vs Nurture Debate1343 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages One topic that has been controversial to psychologist since the phrase was created in 1869 is Ã¢â¬Å"Nature vs NurtureÃ¢â¬ . Although the debate was started well before then, 1869 was the first time it was tied to the debate. The nature vs nurture debate is over whether you get your behavior from genetics, what you inherited from your biological parents, or if they are learned characteristics, what you learn from the environment and what you get taught. The debate can be traced back to early western philosophyRead MoreThe Theory Of Human Development1060 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageslife span development. Development perspectives are the psychoanalytic theory, behavior theory, humanistic approach and cognitive theory. Each theory focuses on different aspects of human development. The psychoanalytic is Ã¢â¬Å"the approach stating that behavior is motivated by inner forces, memories, and conflicts that are usually unconsciousnessÃ¢â¬ ().Following, the behavior perspective emphasizing on the observable behaviors and Ã¢â¬Å"outside stimuli from the environmentÃ¢â¬ . () This approach believed that theRead MoreThe Debate On Nature Versus Nurture Essay969 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesdetermine its formÃ¢â¬ (Fraser). The debate on nature versus Nurture has been a mystery for years now, constantly begging the question on what has a greater effect on the human development of humans. Is human behavior, ideas, and feelings innate or are they learned over time. Nature, or genetic influences, are formed before birth and shaped through early experiences. Genes are viewed as long and complicated chains that are present thought life and develop over time. Nature supporters believe that genes formRead MoreThe Nature Nurture Controversy : Biological Or Environmental Effects Of Iq, Personality And Behavioral Differences932 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe basic elements of the nature-nurture controversy, debates the genetic or environmental effects of IQ, personality and behavioral differenc es in humans. Nature describes an inherited trait, otherwise known as the genes, containing the genetic code for each individual born. These genes contribute the physical characteristics, for example: eye color, skin pigmentation, hair texture, blood type, longevity, etc. Genes impose certain diseases, such as Huntington s Chorea, Breast Cancer, Down SyndromeRead MoreNature vs Nurture Essay804 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesThe controversy of nature vs. nurture has been disputed for years. Nature vs. nurture refers to the question of which factors are most significant in determining development; those related to heredity or environment. It has been reported that some scientists think that Ã¢â¬Å"natureÃ¢â¬ is referred as the importance in heredity as the major determinate also known as Ã¢â¬Å"natureÃ¢â¬ the theory of human behavior. The nurture theory scientists believe that people think and behave in certain ways because they areRead More Twin Early Development Study: Nature versu s Nurture832 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesthese two ideas. Aristotle theorized, that humans are born into the world with a blank slate and their behavior and thoughts are due solely to experience (Ashcraft, 1998). That theory would suggest that humans learn their phobias, sexuality, gender association, and all other traits through the world that surrounds them. Plato, thought quite the opposite. He believed that believed that behaviors and knowledge were due to inborn factors. Although the view of Plato are heavily opposed today, there must
Friday, May 15, 2020
Sample details Pages: 25 Words: 7574 Downloads: 6 Date added: 2017/09/24 Category Advertising Essay Type Argumentative essay Did you like this example? Introduction of Group Project Bose Corporation Founded in 1964 by Dr. Amar Bose, Bose Corporation is a company pioneering in perfecting the quality of sound heard through speakers. Through the years, Bose has become an industry leader by developing innovative products such as the Bookshelf Speaker, Wave Music System, and Bose Suspension System. In 2008, Dr. Amar Bose was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame for Ã¢â¬Å"significantly influenced influencing the quality of how we live. Ã¢â¬ BoseÃ¢â¬â¢s product line ranges from products for pilots, electroforce test instruments, homebuilding/remodeling solutions. Its main products are in professional sound solutions. Bose is a private company headquartered in Framingham, MA, and is continuously discovering breakthrough products to improve the consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ quality of life all over the world. Industry, Offerings, Target Market The Bose Ride System is a one of a kind product. However, mMost people would probably try to compare it to Air Ride, a suspension system that offers a smoother ride for truckers. The NAICS code that would fit particular to the Bose Ride System is 336630: Motor Vehicle Seating and Interior Trim Manufacturing. Because the Bose Ride System is a seat, it is quite obvious that the NAICS code would be motor vehicle seating. The Automobile Seating Industry segment for Air Ride seats comprises of about 8 key companies: Bostrom Seating, Comfort Ride USA, Knoedler Manufacturers, National Seating, Recaro, Sears Seating, Seats, Inc. , and Wise Seating. Total industry revenue in 2009 totaled $15. 039 billion. Bose Corporation is generally known for its impeccable speaker systems and surround sound units, however, it is currently trying to penetrate different markets and the auto market is one of them. Their Automotive Systems Division is constantly innovating and researching to improve upon their current suspension system for vehicles. Because consumer comfort and quality of life is are what Bose tries to improve, they have minimized this suspension unit to introduce the Bose Ride System. It is a seat suspension unit designed to reduce the soreness and fatigue experienced by long-haul drivers. The Bose Ride System will be available beginning March, 2010. Currently it will be available only through a special sales team. Due to the newness of the product, Bose will only allow the Ride System to be sold as an after-market product. The seat is designed to help lessen the feel of bumps and vibrations in the road and to relieve fatigue that comes on when after driving for long periods of time. For the long term, this product will help those who have occupations in driving thus to have lessening back pain and boy wear than when using the common Air Ride system. Bose has specifically targeted the trucking fleet market where they can sell the seat to trucking companies such as freighters and FedEx, etc, and thus the end user would be the consumer. In the future, the seat may be available for small cars, consumers, and maybe even the airline industry; however, for now, Bose is limiting the availability to truck fleets. Mission and Long-Term Goals Bose CorporationÃ¢â¬â¢s mission is Committed to encouraging innovation, creating value for customers, and having passion for what we do. Over the years, the accolades that Bose has attained, such as Inventor of the Year (1987) and Product of the Year (1998), further exemplify the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s mission. Bose is privately held with a goal of reinvesting profits into the corporation for RD, so there is not necessarily a corporate goal. Based on this, it is safe to assume that the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s long term goals are in line with researching and developing products that will facilitate the lifestyles of consumers. The Bose Ride System will help meet BoseÃ¢â¬â¢s mission of creating value for customers through the lessening of back pain and fatigue of the end user. Through int erviews with professional drivers, Bose found that many over-the-road drivers accept feeling sore and tired as part of the job. Many drivers who participated in a trial of the Bose Ride system reported that they felt more comfortable, less sore and less fatiguedÃ¢â¬âall factors that can improve job performance and quality of life. In addition, the value this will add to businesses is even greater. Because drivers will be feeling less fatigue, and thus be in better shape (less back pain, etc), drivers will be more efficient and willwould be willing to drive for longer periods. In addition, employee turnover may not be as high due to the fact that the Bose Ride System can improve a driversÃ¢â¬â¢ quality of life. Bose is continuously researching ways to improve and better the lives of consumers, and the Bose Ride System is a great way for the company to contribute to its Mission. Industry Analysis Product Life Cycle The motor vehicle seating manufacturing industry launched s imultaneously with the automobile industry of the early 20th century. The industries expanded together over the following 100 years, but the seating industry began to become specialized towards the end of the century delivering customized solutions for particular needs. Traditional seats used in long haul truck driving began to lose favor within the industry in the 1970s when doctors found that seasoned truck operators were exposed to whole-body vibrations leading to back and organ damage over time. At the same time, suspension and compression technology enabled seat manufacturers to attempt to counteract some of the vibrations by adding technology found in an automobileÃ¢â¬â¢s suspension tire system to the base of the seat. In doing so, some of the associated risk was mitigated, but the passive suspension system only responded to some of the whole-body vibrations and did not have sufficient useful life. The entire industry is quite mature in the United States, but in growth mode in emerging markets such as India and China, where citizens are beginning to buy their first automobiles and companies require trucks to meet the supply chain needs of their growing organizations. The active suspension seat industry is in the early adopters phase with only a few manufacturers introducing products and transportation companies contemplating the costs and benefits of implementing them in their fleets. The Bose Ride system is due to be launched in March of 2010. Currently reaching the end of its development period, the introduction phase is now looming over it. After its launch in March 2010 a lot of growth and an idea as to its potential will be seen. The introductory phase is a time of huge growth, a potential for a lot of technical change in product design and most likely a time for limited or negative profitability. It is also a time when others in the market begin to gauge the product and future competitors start out on making their own versions. As a resu lt of this, by the time the product reaches its growth stage, there will be a lot more competitors on the stage. A lot more aggressive marketing will be seen in this Ã¢â¬ËgrowthÃ¢â¬â¢ stage and also a potential for branching from the scene of heavy duty truck fleets to other systems, like off-road vehicles, construction equipment, airplanes, boats, etc. Also, at this stage, Bose will probably tap into their immense strength with regards to sound technology and incorporate speakers and other sound systems in their seats. More and more competitors will also probably show up on the scene with comparable products. Profitability at this stage though, is projected to be high. As the product gets into the more mature phase, improvised, probable lighter versions of the seat that are adaptable to individual consumers also will probably make the rounds. Also, newer versions will take much shorter periods of time to be introduced and prove to be more profitable. Bose has already inve sted years of research, all of which will payback as they implement newer versions. Profitability at this stage will also be at a high. Also, currently the product is only due for a US launch. As the product establishes itself locally, international markets will provide huge potential. Concentration on features and quality improvement become the prime focus after the initial launch. Maintaining effective distribution channels and good communication channels and customer care support also will become top priorities. Overall, because the product is in the introductory phase, Bose will have to put in a lot of effort to market and distribute the product. In addition, because the Ride System is unique to the seating industry, it is expected to be very profitable for the company. Competitor Analysis As stated earlier, the car seating industry is in the maturity stage. Many companies have already penetrated the market and have become leaders in innovative seating designs that not onl y help the driver ergonomically, but also are stylish accessories for the vehicle. The Bose Ride SystemÃ¢â¬â¢s major competitors include Recaro Group, Bostrom Seating, Sears Seating, and Seats Inc. Recaro Group The Keiper Recaro Group is a German based company that specializes in mobile seating. They have three companies under their umbrella: Keiper, Recaro, and Recaro Aircraft Seating. Each company specializes in seating that will enhance the end userÃ¢â¬â¢s comfort. Their product line ranges from economy and business class seating for aircrafts, all the way to ergonomic seats for the end consumer. Keiper Recaro GroupÃ¢â¬â¢s sales figures for 2008 top Ã¢â ¬1. 8 billion. Already a global company, Keiper plans to further expand the company to Dubai and Shanghai in the next few years, in order to have a greater reach. The Keiper Recaro Group has diversified seating options through multiple industries: regular automotive, commercial vehicles, aircrafts, and public seating. S ince Bose has only targeted the commercial vehicles, this analysis will focus on just the commercial vehicle offerings of Recaro North America. Recaro North AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s main product line includes 4 groups: Motorsports, Tuning, Ergonomics, and Child Safety. Each sub-category has attuned its products to comfort and well-being of the end user. The Ergonomics seats are the ones that are mostly targeted towards commercial vehicles such as busses and trucks. These seats focus on reducing the stress of the road, and help to seat the driver in an ergonomically correct position, therefore reducing any strain felt on legs and back due to long periods of seating. Recaro Group has a long list of customers which include BMW, Ford, Chevy, McLaren, Toyota, Mercedes, etc. Their reach for customers is global, and this will be a big threat to Bose. Their Marketing Strategy and website are great tools for customers who are interested in this companyÃ¢â¬â¢s products. Recaro is a recognized brand in many industries such as Motor Racing, Car Seating, etc. With such great brand awareness, it is easy for Recaro to reach customers, and to establish itself as a good company. RecaroÃ¢â¬â¢s main product is mobile seating and they are able to focus all of their efforts into one main product. Due to the seating industryÃ¢â¬â¢s maturity, Recaro will have to form alliances with other companies to enhance their product offerings. Bostrom Seating Bostrom Seating is a leading supplier of air suspension and static seating systems for the heavy-truck, agricultural, construction, bus, and specialty vehicle market. In 2005, Bostrom Seating became a subsidiary of Accuride Corporation who is one of the largest and most diversified manufacturers and suppliers of commercial vehicle components in North America. Bostrom Seating is focused on Quality Assurance and has achieved ISO 9001:2000, ISO/TS 16949:2002 and ISO 14001 certification. They have also fine tuned their manufacturing pr ocesses through years of experience to create an efficient process. Bostrom Seating is 100% focused on developing and manufacturing truck seating as they sell no other products. Bose will be hard pressed to be able to compete with Bostrom Seating; at least in the beginning. Bostrom Seating offers about 25 different products to a diverse target market which includes all medium-heavy duty trucks, busses, agricultural and construction vehicles as well as specialty vehicles, while Bose only offers one product to one market. Bostrom Seating has hundreds of distributors all over North America, not to mention the other hundreds of distributors they have in Canada. However, Bostrom Seating also is not an industry leader and has low brand name recognition. Sears Seating Sears Seating Inc. was established in Davenport, Iowa in 1855; they are a leader in the design and manufacture of suspension and non-suspension seating systems. Their target markets include the agricultural, constructio n, and material handling equipment, and over the road truck markets. Sears Seating is currently the major seat supplier to John Deere Co. , CNH, Caterpillar, Hyster, Yale, Freightliner, Bobcat, and many others around the world. Sears Seating holds over 60 patents, and utilizes the latest technologies in design and testing to ensure every seat meets or exceeds customer expectations. Sears Seating is ISO 9001 QMI-SAI Global certified. Sears Seating has a variety of product offerings including their top selling lines of Atlas Truck Seats, and Elite 80 Series. Some of the features of these products include ergonomically contoured seat pans and cushions to provide full body support and semi-active and active-suspension technologies that reduce and eliminate vibrations. These products are distributed worldwide with hundreds of suppliers in the continental United Stated and overseas. Sears Seating appeals to their target markets by offering comfort, durability and value as well as a n extensive 10 year warranty on all seats that they manufacture. They have maintained a strong relationship with their major buyers over the past decades and this has been their main means of marketing new product offerings. Seats Inc. Seats Inc. is a world class leader in seating products. Product diversification, innovative design and manufacturing combined with advanced technology generate the world class seating of Seats Incorporated. They are a member of Nordic Group of companies and are located in Reedsburg, Wisconsin. Seats Inc. has distributors throughout North America, and offers an extensive product line of highway seating, off highway seating, turf seating, school bus seating, mariner seating, office chair seating and locomotive seating. Seats Inc. is quality certified to ISO 9001:2000. This certification gives customers an added sense of reliability of the products. Due to this certification, customers understand that they have a quality focus, and that customer se rvice and customer satisfaction are their main priorities. Seats Inc has In-House design engineering which constantly works on new designs and modifications. They also have custom/contract seat and suspension system design department that works on development services, compliance testing and certifications for S. A. E and F. M. V. S. S. Seats Inc. markets their products to by focusing on trade shows. This is an advantage to the company as potential customers are able to physically see product offering prior to purchase. SWOT Analysis Strengths |Weaknesses | |Recaro Group |Recaro Group | |Global customer base |Broad customer focus | |Brand recognition |Limited improvement to existing products without extensive research | |All efforts focused on seating industry |Bostrom Seating | |Bostrom Seating |Not an industry leader | |Diverse product mix |Low brand name recognition | |100Ã¢â¬â¢s of distributors in both North America and Canada |Poor distribution channels | |Sears Seating |Sear s Seating | |Over 150 years of experience in the seating industry |Broad customer focus | |Strong brand recognition |Seats Inc. | |Worldwide distribution channels |Relatively new to automobile seat market | |Seats Inc. | |Diverse product mix | | |Design and engineering innovations | | |Opportunities |Threats | |Expand into international markets |Mobile seating is a mature industry, market led by strong competitors | |Bose has potential to offer better technology enhanced seating |Bose Ride System is only designed for Class 8 over-the-road trucks | |Freight transportation industry has opportunity for growth and |Only offering one product line | |longevity |Bose has limited distribution channels | |Strong brand name in other industries |No major customer base | | |Limited customer service offerings (limited warranty) | | |Low brand name recognition | Customer Analysis Market Segmentation The Bose Ride System is an aftermarket product, meaning trucks will not be sold with the system al ready installed. Due to this, the main potential customer base for Bose will be large fleet distributors. According to the survey data from Truck Manufactures Association https://www. truckmfgs. org/SalesData. asp, Class-8 truck has the highest sales in the market followed by Class-7 and finally by class 6. The sales of new trucks have been declining in the past few years due to number of reasons such as poor economy and depreciation of US dollar. What this means to Bose is that they have to target used truck owners, fleet company in the market and concentrate less on brand new truck manufacturers. However, this could be a future potential when the new truck sale picks up. In order to find the potential customers for Bose ride system, the company has to focus on large fleet owners in retail sectors such as Sears, Target, Costco and Sysco. Sear/Kmart has over 1300 store within US and they have their own fleet division to distribute their products across the country. Costco has over 550 locations in America and they are the largest whole sale seller in the country. Their revenue is over 7 billion a year and all their products are carried in fleet/trucking system. Due to this reason, Bose could approach such fleet companies to sell their products. Bose ride system marketing team could also focus on commercial fleet carriers such as Landstar Inc- https://www. landstar. om/. They provide the largest transportation services to North America and targeting such fleet company will help boost sales and increase customer base. As the lifeblood of the U. S. economy, the trucking industry employs millions of professional drivers to deliver approximately 95% of the nations goods. Wal-Mart is the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest retailer, and has one of the largest private trucking fleets in the world with over 6,800 units in its fleet. These vehicles are the backbone of Wal-MartÃ¢â¬â¢s distribution network; they crisscross the country collectively traveling 900 million miles a year to deliver goods to the retailerÃ¢â¬â¢s nearly 4,000 stores. Wal-Mart is currently undergoing a green initiative and is looking to transition a majority of the fleet to hybrid trucks. This initiative could be an excellent opportunity for Bose to market the Bose Ride System to Wal-Mart and have them installed into their new hybrid fleet. Market segments include: (a)Private trucking fleets (b)Contracted distributors (c)Owner- operators Bose ride system marketing team has three market segments to focus on. These market segments have great potential in trucking industry. Bose can find these markets to be a potential for huge sales in the early stages of the product. Segmentation of market is done according to buyerÃ¢â¬â¢s potential of purchase. We will see in detail as to who are these buyers. Customer Attractiveness 1=Low 5=High |Enterprise Fleet |Corporate Fleet |Owner Operators | |Size |Ã |Ã |350,000 | |Growth (5 years) |(4) Increases in Supply Chain |(2) Low |(3 ) Flat | | |leverage throughout nation due to | | | | |focus on finding efficiencies. | | |Price Sensitivity |(4) Understand the significance of |(2) Highly sensitive to price and |(4) Understand the significance of | | |reducing vibrations throughout the |often not interested in long term |reducing vibrations throughout the | | |drivers body during trips. Willing |benefits of product. |drivers body during trips. Willing | | |to spend. | |to spend. | |Capability Fit |(4) Fleet managers have large |(3) Significant range in vehicles |(3) Significant range in vehicles | | |quantities of common vehicles. |throughout segment. Though peaks in|throughout segment. Though peaks in| | | |common fit. common fit. | |Channel Marketing Reach |(3) Strong corporate reporting |(4) Limited corporate reporting |(3) Individual owners read | | |structure. Bose can arrange time |structure. Bose can arrange time |periodicals and study industry | | |with management. |with management. Management would |foru ms closely. | | | |like this level of attention | | | | |though very busy. | |Willingness to try new brand |(4) Interested in the bottom-line |(3) Interested in the bottom-line |(2) Very focused on tried and true | | |and understands the level of |and understands the level of | | | |innovation |innovation | | |Overall Attractiveness |19 |14 |15 | Sales Goals and Demand Estimations For the Bose Ride System, which is in its early stages of the product life cycle, it is expected that it will take some time for sales to pick up. Because the Automobile Seating market is already saturated with providers of seats such as Bostrom, Recaro, etc. , it will be hard for Bose to penetrate the market. In addition, the growth rate since 2008 for the market has declined by almost 15%; however it looks like the truck freight sector has grown by nearly 4% in 2008. Due to the maturity of the car seat manufacturing industry, it looks like the growth rates are trending down. The Ride System will firs t target the enterprise fleet segment as that seemingly will offer the most sales in the beginning. In addition, by taking lead from industry sales trends, we can successfully depict similar sales trends for the Ride System for the next few years. Three scenarios can possibly happen, and they are depicted below. Per the NAICS code 33636, the Bose Ride System falls under Automobile Seating Interior Manufacturing. Per Ibis WorldÃ¢â¬â¢s industry analysis, it looks like the seat manufacturing takes up about 50% of the industry totals. When applying that to the sales figures from 2009, it looks like revenue can be estimated to be about $7,000 million. That includes sales from the top seat manufacturers as well as the little companies. Sales trending for BoseÃ¢â¬â¢s top competitors are listed as below (in thousands): Sales Trending for the past 4 years (in Thousands) | | | | | | | | | | | |2005 |2006 |2007 |2008 | | |Competitors |Sales |Sales |Sales |Sales | | |Recaro |234 |265 |2 70 |270 | | |Bostrom |70 |78 |52 |47 | | |Total |304 |343 |322 |317 | | |Growth rate | |12. 90% |-6. 09% |-1. 55% | Through the Time Series Method, if Bose applies this trending to its 2010 Ã¢â¬â 2014 sales projections, the figures may look like this: |2010 |2011 |2012 |2013 |2014 | |Sales in Units |200 |226 |212 |209 |206 | |Sales in Dollars |200,000 |225,798 |212,048 |208,758 |205,520 | Market Entry, Branding Positioning Strategy Though the Bose Ride System is a new product from a new category player, the overarching Bose brand is widely known and accepted across North America. Considered a household name, Bose is most recognized for its high-quality speaker system. According to JD Power and Associates, Bose is the strongest brand power not only in the US, but worldwide. In addition, 88 percent of men and women between 18 and 65 recognize the brand and attribute it to quality, excellence and trust. While this is overwhelmingly associated with audio products, the root essenc e of these three attributes can be leveraged to capture a new audience in the transportation industry. Many auto manufacturers are already familiar with the Bose Ride System and already talking with Bose about incorporating them into their vehicles. With the brandÃ¢â¬â¢s essence and values demonstrated, the new product can be positioned properly in the transportation industry. Next, Bose already has connections in the auto manufacturing industry, so it may not be too hard for Bose to enter the enterprise fleet market. Bose will have to ensure that its product is viewed as being beneficial for the end user, and not just an accessory. Therefore, Bose must position the Bose Ride System as a unique approach to eliminating long-term stress on driversÃ¢â¬â¢ bodies as they transport goods across the US. The goal of Perceptual Positioning is to create enough interest or buzz in a product that it will demand the attention of consumers. It is also a communications campaign that it desi gned to instill in the prospects mind a vivid picture of product and its brand. In our case, the Bose Ride System. Due to the fact that Bose already has great brand recognition with consumers, this shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be too difficult. A successful communications campaign guides potential customers through a series of attitudes and effects: Awareness leads to comprehension, comprehension leads to favorable attitude, a favorable attitude leads to interest, interest leads to intention, and intention leads to purchase. Positioning Statement: For Long-Haul Truckers, the Bose Ride System is the smoothest ride around because it uses state of the art technology that senses, analyzes, and counteracts forces from the road. Product positioning process for Bose Ride System: Perceptual Positioning Map: [pic] The truck seating market is currently a hostile environment with many leading industry competitors. The combined market share of the leading competitors indicates how much of the market may be left over for a new entrant. Market hostility may increase with the entrance of the Bose Ride System and Bose must be prepared for this. Majority of the main competitors are highly dependent on the sales of their truck seating and will likely put up a fight upon the introduction of a new product into the market place. This strategy could include aggressive pricing incentive, deals, or patent challenges. Bose will be using the Bowling Alley Strategy when entering the market. This approach uses a low-key calculated entry into a narrowly defined market. Once successful entry into one segment is completed the firm can move on to other segments in hopes that the momentum will carry over. In Boses case they have chosen Class 8 trucks in the commercial truck fleet as their target segment to enter first. This method is appropriate for Bose so that it can quietly enter the market and establish itself in the truck seat industry without alarming competitors. Once Bose is a trusted br and name, they can expand into other markets such as individual owner-operators and OEM manufacturers. Next, in terms of a market entry strategy for the Bose Ride System, it falls somewhere between being a pioneer and follower. The product would be considered a pioneer for taking air ride seating one step further with state of the art technology. This provides Bose with the distinct advantages that are associated with pioneering such as (a) to determine the industry standard or rule of the game in the market when it comes to such air ride seating (b) select the best positioning, suppliers and distributors for such a system c) capitalize on the economies of scales and learning curve effects that result in cost advantages over followers, and (d) build the reputation of innovativeness and brand loyalty among the customers. Bose does face a challenge though, in that there are already other forms of air ride seating options available in the market and when taken in terms of truck seating in general, it would be considered a follower that has developed over existing products. In such a case it has the advantage of capitalizing over mistakes of previous seating manufacturers in terms of technology, product positioning, channel selection, promotion and pricing. Also, it is bound to face competition from existing products that already have a hold on the market. Because of its unique position Bose has to address a few key issues to ensure longevity, these include high product quality, heavy scale advertising and superior customer service. Product and Service Strategy Research suggests that out of the four strategic factors marketing synergy, technical synergy, product advantage and international orientation; product advantage is the most important. This tells us that customers first and foremost want to know what the core benefit is of any product, or in our case, the Bose Ride System. The core benefit or Ã¢â¬Å"product advantageÃ¢â¬ that the Bose Ride System offe rs is that it improves ride quality for long-haul truckers. Potential consumers will need to make a decision whether they believe Bose will follow through on this claimed benefit. To by or not to buy, that is the question. The BoseRideÃ¢â ¢ systemÃ¢â¬â¢s marketing strategy in addition varies by customer segment. As indicated in the customer matrix, the enterprise fleet management segmentation is initially the primary focus. In this situation, the product strategy revolves around the benefit of reducing whole-body vibrations of the employees. This customer is accountable to their employee and their shareholders. Consumers make decisions based on brand name, features, design, quality and after sale service. First up is brand name. Bose has an excellent brand image and reputation, but much of that reputation stems from the audio side of Bose, not truck seating. Consumers will need to develop the vision of Bose as a brand that can be trusted. Moving on to features, The Bose Ri de System features state of the art design and technology that improves ride quality by intelligently responding to changing conditions. It continuously senses, analyzes and counteracts forces from the road instead of just damping them. Bose speakers are considered to be among the best quality speakers on the market. Bose needs consumers to link these two sides together and put their faith in Bose to create high quality truck seating, just like they create high quality speakers. The Bose ride system weighs approximately 180 lbs and will be shipped as one single package from its plant in MA. Bose ride system is designed in such a way that a Bose certified trained mechanic can fit it in approximately two hours. Currently the Bose ride system is sold only as an aftermarket product and hence it has to be installed separately by a trained mechanic. It is designed specifically for Class 8 over-the-road trucks. Bose does not recommend installation in other vehicles. It also comes with a 1 year manufacturing warranty. Bose takes pride in providing high quality products to its customers; that will not change when they begin selling truck seating. Bose currently offers a 30-day performance guarantee on all of their products. If for any reason you are unhappy with a Bose product, simply return it within the 30 days for a full refund, no questions asked. Consumers love knowing that they can Ã¢â¬Å"testÃ¢â¬ products out for a few weeks before they decide to keep it. If Bose offers that same performance guarantee with truck seating, consumers will feel 100% confident in purchasing the Bose Ride System and putting their trust in the Bose name brand. These features of warranty and installation are especially important to enterprise customers as they are interested in large production quantities to gain economies of scale for purchasing and maintain low transaction costs with fewer suppliers. For the future looking towards expansion Bose needs to focus its strategy on offering more viable options for installation and warranty so that the consumer feels like he is being offered more choice. This is largely in contrast to the owner operator customer segment. OOÃ¢â¬â¢s are just as cognizant of their health, however research shows they are more brand conscience and less focused on installation. A 2009 LandLine magazine survey indicates 56. 4% of OOÃ¢â¬â¢s perform their own maintenance, and when it comes to purchasing oil and tires more than 70% of drivers prefer trusted names. Knowing this, the messaging hierarchy changes to lead with the brand and how its technology background enables this breakthrough performance in the industry. Messaging Hierarchy Grid: | |Enterprise Fleet |Corporate Fleet |Owner Operators | |Lead Message |Reduced Health Risks. Studies show the |Reduced Health Risks. Studies show the |Reduced Health Risks. Studies show the | | |exposure to whole-body vibrations causes|exposure to whole-body vibrations causes|exposure t o whole-body vibrations causes| | |health problems. This product mitigates |health problems. This product mitigates |health problems. This product mitigates | | |this risk, thus reducing health |this risk, thus reducing health |this risk, thus enabling them to be | | |premiums. |premiums. |healthier. | |Message 2 |Reduced Health Risks. Studies show the |Brand. technology background enables |Brand. technology background enables | | |exposure to hole-body vibrations causes|this breakthrough performance in the |this breakthrough performance in the | | |health problems. This product mitigates |industry |industry | | |this risk, thus enabling employees to be| | | | |happier. | | | |Message 3 |Economies of Scale. Bose understands the|Installation. With a varying fleet of |Robust Warranty. OOs operate their own | | |importance of purshasing hundreds of |vehicles it is important to Corporate |business and want the security of | | |units at a time and can support large |Fleet managers tha t this product fit |knowing their investment is protected. | | |accounts from a supply chain |their entire line. | | | |perspective. | | | |Message 4 |Brand. technology background enables |Robust Warranty. OOs operate their own |Ã | | |this breakthrough performance in the |business and want the security of | | | |industry |knowing their investment is protected. | | Channel Strategy Channel objectives define the relationship between the manufacturers and customers. Bose has already determined the channel of distribution for the Bose Ride System. Bose handles all the tasks necessary to make a sale and deliver the product to the customer. These tasks include making contact with potential buyers, negotiating, marketing, servicing the products, transportation and storage. This should come as no surprise but Bose has chosen to use a direct channel of distribution. Starting in March, the Bose Ride System is being sold and distributed directly by Bose, via a specialized sales team out of Framingham, Massachusetts. As stated before, Bose is currently only selling seats to fleet owners who are purchasing in bulk. Down the road, Bose will begin selling directly to individual owner-operators as well as aftermarket distributors. One of the main reasons Bose has chosen to sell direct is due to the complexity of the product. Bose needed an expert sales team to demonstrate products, provide detailed pre-sale information and lastly provide after-sales service. Direct marketing means selling products by dealing directly with consumers rather than through intermediaries. The main advantage of selling direct is that there is no need to share profits with the intermediaries, since they have been excluded from the process. However, direct selling does have its constraints and limitations. Bose may be giving up more cost efficient distribution logistics that intermediaries have available because they have chosen to sell and distribute directly from a centralized sales te am in Massachusetts. Intermediaries may also have sophisticated Customer Relationship Management System (CRM) at their disposal that Bose simply does not have. Finally, the biggest constraint that selling direct has on Bose is the time and money constraint. Direct distribution is not easy work, especially for companies that do not specialize in it. This is why it will take a lot more time and effort for Bose to effectively sell the Bose Ride System directly. Bose has to use a highly specialized sales team to handle the complex selling situations, which does not come cheap. The Bose sales team requires a high degree of market knowledge and selling skills to effectively sell the Bose Ride System. As stated previously, Bose has chosen to sell the Bose Ride System directly. So Bose will be performing all the necessary tasks involved from assembly to delivery. These tasks include but are not limited to marketing, manufacturing, distributing, and after-sales service. An alternative method that Bose could use to distribute the new Bose Ride System is the indirect distribution method. In using this method, Bose would need to hire intermediaries that are responsible for the distribution of goods on the behalf of the Bose. These intermediaries serve as channel partners that ultimately play a vital role in BoseÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy and success. However, indirect channels are generally used when the markets are fragmented and widely dispersed and when the products arenÃ¢â¬â¢t considered complex; which does not apply to BoseÃ¢â¬â¢s situation. Despite Bose using a direct distribution approach, Supply Chain Management is very important. That is why Bose has developed an approach to quality management that is driving the integration of manufacturing and selling across its supply chain. Bose has great business relationships that help make the entire process a little easier. SCM isnÃ¢â¬â¢t quite as complex when using direct distribution because you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to deal with any suppliers or intermediaries. However, you do still have to deal with customer relationships, customer service, and order fulfillment. I believe Bose should focus on quality management in order to gain a competitive advantage in the market. Bose has never sold a product like the Bose Ride System before and because of this, customers are going to be weary of purchasing it. If Bose begins selling the Bose Ride System and customers arenÃ¢â¬â¢t satisfied with the quality, or keep having to have the product fixed, Bose will lose any respect it had in the automotive seating market. This is why I believe Bose must focus on quality management and make certain that the products that the customers receive are to the highest quality possible. Supply Chain Diagram: [pic] Pricing Strategy Strategic and Tactical Pricing Objectives Although the car seat manufacturing market is saturated with a few companies at the top, BoseÃ¢â¬â¢s initial pricing strategy will not be to mee t the pricing of competition; however, this may be something to look into when competitors begin to mimic BoseÃ¢â¬â¢s technology and begin losing market share. Because the Bose Ride system is a new product that defines a new approach to an old idea, it is important that Bose focus on the following objectives: to achieve a target return on investment, and to achieve a significant market-share. Firstly, BoseÃ¢â¬â¢s objective is to reach 100% profits, and the reason its goal is so high is because of the value of the Ride System. The core benefits of the Ride System include reduced stress on the body thus creating more efficiency from the driver, and increased comfort for the driver by reducing vibrations felt on the road. The health improvements offered by the Ride System should be reason enough for many of the fleet transporters to install and switch; however, it will take some time for many of the customers to realize the benefits of the Ride System. In order to recoup the costs of manufacturing products, it is important for Bose to recognize all costs may be incurred. The cost dynamics in any firm change over time. Some of costs change due to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s overall strategic objectives, i. e. saving money, changing suppliers, etc; other changes, however, are not subject to the overall goals and objectives of management, and it is key to be prepared for such changes. A firm with insight into cost dynamics may be able to position itself to gain cost advantage by anticipating changes such as industry growth, differential technological change, inflation, and market adjustment. Because the seating industry is very old and saturated, Bose can bring a Ã¢â¬Å"breath of fresh air,Ã¢â¬ and introduce a new product. The most important cost that Bose will have to be prepared for is Market Adjustment where competitors adopt to similar activities as Bose, and thus driving up costs to incur such activities. For example, if Bose uses a specific vendor for seat materials, other companies may follow suit to remain competitive. The supplier, then, has the upper hand and may increase its price in order to increase its profitability. It is necessary for Bose to anticipate its competitors to try to mimic its technology upon introduction. Given the early stage of the lifecycle, the initial pricing strategy assumes a low level of units sold and a unit profit two times the variable costs required to manufacture and install. Effectively this is a 100% product profit margin and is in line with new product pricing requirements of the corporation. The purple shaded area in Exhibit 1 illustrates this notion. Given the exclusive breakthrough technology incorporated in the product, it is difficult to anticipate when competitors will catch up or when demand grows exponentially. In either event, the product will find itself in the green shaded area where the feature/benefit story no longer resonates and customers purchase based on price alone. In this case, product profit is lower requiring only a smaller margin over product costs. The demand of the product depends greatly on outside factors. Healthcare costs continue to stir contention in board rooms with companies like Caterpillar taking million dollar charges in preparation for healthcare costs. Bose is uniquely positioned to offer heavy trucking companies an ability to reduce the risks of back problems with this product, so it is reasonable to conclude that demand could spike due to political factors. Price Relationship to Life Cycle [pic] Pricing Methods Strategy With the introduction of the new Bose Ride System, Bose has chosen to use a skimming pricing strategy. The Bose Ride System uses state of the art technology and there are currently no other products like it on the market. There are similar products that use similar technology, but Bose is the only manufacturer of truck seating that uses sensors and control algorithms to counteract road disturbances before t hey reach the driver. These technological advantages give Bose grounds to demand a higher price at the offset. As time passes and competition begins to duplicate the product and competition in the market increases, Bose can and will lower the price accordingly. Due to the use of this patented technology, Bose will initially set the price at a high level in attempt to capture early profits as well as quickly recover some of the high costs of development. In addition, BoseÃ¢â¬â¢s CEO, Bob Maresca, stated that although this technology is a breakthrough, the pricing for the seat will be Ã¢â¬Å"well under $10,000. Ã¢â¬ The skimming pricing strategy will also support the marketing goals of Bose. Bose is marketing the Bose Ride System by saying itÃ¢â¬â¢s a Ã¢â¬Å"breakthroughÃ¢â¬ and boasts Ã¢â¬Å"unmatched performance. Ã¢â¬ These lofty marketing slogans come with a price. It would look bad in the eyes of the consumer if Bose makes these statements about how the Bose Rid e System will change the trucking seating industry forever and then places a low price tag on it. The automotive truck seating market isnÃ¢â¬â¢t exactly commonplace and is somewhat of a luxury goods product, and luxury goods almost always comes with a high Ã¢â¬Å"luxuryÃ¢â¬ price tag. The high price tag on the Bose Ride System is a sign of high quality, and as everyone knows with Bose, they sell very high quality products. Pricing Strategy Market Penetration Bose will need to consider the competitions response to the introduction of the Bose Ride System when deciding its pricing strategy. It can be assumed that the major competitors will want to preserve their market share. Bose will need to examine the cost structure and strategy of each major competitor while also remaining aware of potential producers in the seating industry. By benchmarking competitors, Bose will be able to determine how well competitors will be able to respond to the new product by offering their own p rice reductions in the future. However, as Bose has chosen to use a skimming strategy, they will have to consider that some competitors may not offer price reductions. Instead they may offer other incentives to customers such as better warranties, or installation options. Bose must be aware that these types of benefits could take away from potential market share regardless of the price point they choose. Alternately, competitors can react by adjusting their own products to remain competitive and retain their market share. E-Commerce The Bose Ride System is not a product that will be sold via the internet, although other products offered by Bose, i. e. headphones, sound systems, etc are currently available through the website. Bose is selling the Ride System only through contacting sales people in Framingham. However, the Bose website is used primarily as a source of information and goings-on in the company. In the future, Bose may feel that online support for fleet managers wh o have purchased the chair, may be a good route. The use of the internet for customer service may prove to be a powerful value-added incentive to customers. Works Cited: Bose Corporation. https://www. bose. com/controller? url=/bose_ride_system/index. jsp=AUTO0003 Ibisworld Industry Reports. www. ibisworld. com/industry/default. aspx? indid=835 Skydel, Seth. Ã¢â¬Å"Driver Retention: SEATS. Ã¢â¬ Fleet Equipment. August 2008. https://www. just-auto. com/article. aspx? id=89314 https://knowledge. wharton. upenn. du/papers/195. pdf Segars, Albert H. , Warren J. Harkness, and William J. Kettinger. Process Management and Supply-Chain Integration at the Bose Corporation. Interfaces 31. 3 (2001): 102-114. Business Source Premier. EBSCO. Web. 13 Mar. 2010. Hutt, Michael D. , and Thomas W. Speth. Business Marketing Managment B2B. 10e ed. Cengage Learning, 2010. Print. Pages (282-289)(331-341) https://www. 12manage. com/description_cost_dynamics. html https://www. investopedia. com/terms/p /priceskimming. asp https://trucktrend. automotive. com/130923/163-news100202-bose-class-8-truck-seat -system-actively-counters-shocks-vibrations/index. html As first process of identifying competing products, we identify Bostrom seats and Seats Inc as the major competitor. They have been in the market for years and they offer over 25 different seating options. The Bose ride system is the only seating product currently available by Bose, making it difficult for customers to even consider Bose. Attributes of Bose Ride System Ã¢â¬â customers are well aware of the fact that Bose is an innovative company and their products has better quality than others in the market. Bose Ride System is designed to protect and safe guard the human health by absorbing the vibrations from the vehicle. For some buyers this is important and differentiates them from other competitors. Information about the potential customers such as Walmart, Sears, Costco and other commercial enterprise has been collected. They tend to consider better health of their employees who drive the truck for them and also consider the return of investment with the pricing. Bose Ride System has to address these issues and their pricing should be competitive. The current position of Bose Ride System in the market is very strong. This is mainly due their existing brand name in the industry. Bose has a good brand name in the premium market solely because of their innovative ideas. All the existing loyal customer of Bose will consider Bose Ride System. The preference of the market for such product mainly depends upon cost of the product. Not all consumers are keen towards innovative products mainly because of the cost it comes with. Bose Ride System has to compete with the cost of the product as that of competitors in the market. They may even have to educate the customers for the importance of health and improve awareness. Bose Ride System marketing team has to study customer attributes to such prod ucts. They need to improve the awareness about the health among customers and explain the effect of road vibrations on human body. The team should work on pursuing a strategy to increase the importance of this attribute to the customers. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Bose Ride" essay for you Create order
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Close your eyes and picture this, you are outside of a favorite cafe looking for a table. You are just about to sit on the patio to enjoy a steaming hot cup of coffee, when you look to over and see the most disgusting sight ever. He looks absolutely mountainous; there are rolls upon rolls suffocating his body. Food is flying everywhere, lettuce is being launched through the air, and there are pieces of meat all over the table and floor. You are astounded to see that he is trying to snag his third burger. You then walk away utterly shocked that someone can let their dog get that fat. That is right what I was describing was about a canine, not a human being, which is what I bet you thought while reading the description. Society and theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦When these glands get damaged which can happen in numerous ways like, for example the gland getting inflamed or through an autoimmune disease, it can cause hypothyroidism (Ã¢â¬Å"Hypothyroidism,Ã¢â¬ 2010). Hypothyroidism is a medical condition where the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormones. When this happens it affects your metabolism by slowing the process down, and when you metabolism is slow you are extremely likely to gain weight (Pick, 2005). Unlike Hypothyroidism, the next disease causes obesity in a completely different way. The next condition that contributes to obesity is CushingÃ¢â¬â¢s disease. While this disease may not be quite as common as hypothyroidism, it still manages to affect around fifteen-million people each year. CushingÃ¢â¬â¢s disease is a condition where the body is exposed to a high amount of cortisol. This syndrome can be caused in two ways. The first way this is that the body itself produces too much cortisol (Ã¢â¬Å"CushingÃ¢â¬â¢s Syndrome,Ã¢â¬ n.d). The second way is when a person takes a corticosteroid medication (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2010). During both ways, the excessive cortisol causes the body to Ã¢â¬Å"shift energy in the form of fatÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"CushingÃ¢â¬â¢s Segment,Ã¢â¬ 2010). The disease causes weight gain in the upper body, especially in the face and abdomen regions. There will also tend to be a lot of fat deposits in the cheeks, which causes people to have the appearanceShow MoreRelatedThe Causes and Effects of Obesity686 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesCauses and E ffects of Obesity Overview Obesity according to Birmingham and Treasure means there is an excess of adipose tissue (fat) in the body (195). Today, hardly a day goes without the mention of an obesity related issue in the news. In a way, obesity is increasingly becoming a national epidemic. 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Among many other consRead MoreHuman Related Obesity1090 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIs obesity a disease or a human related cause? Researchers have studied this question for years and have come to a variety of different conclusions. Some believe that obesity is a disease and can only be prevented by medications, while others believe that obesity is a human related cause and can be only prevented by a healthy diet and exercise. The American Medical Association (AMA) recently announced that obesity is officially a disease. Dr. Patrice Harris, a member of the American Medical AssociationRead MoreObesity And Its Effects On Obesity970 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesObesity is the buildup of excess body fat, caused by the ingestion of more food than the body can use in which the extra calories are stored as fat. Obesity is measured by taking BMI, or body mass index of the person which is their height and weight and putting it into a formula. As stated by The Editors of EncyclopÃ ¦dia Britannica, Ã¢â¬Å" A BMI between 25.0 and 29.9 equates with overweight and 30.0 and above with obesity. Morbid obesity (also known as extreme, or severe, obesity) is defined as a BMI ofRead MoreObesity And Its Effects On Obesity Essay1598 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesObesity is a prevalent condition in America that undeniably leads to a plethora of health complications, including heart disease, diabetes, and depression. However, while medical interventions can be useful for addressing obesity, treating it as a purely medical condition can decontextualize this growing issue. Additionally, it can support the use of ineffective but potentially harmful treatments by a group of disproportionately empowered medical professionals and industries, that are incentivized
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Minimizing Language Barriers. Answer: Introduction Language barriers are used to refer to linguistic barriers that arise during communication generally experienced by an individual or group of individuals, who speak different dialects or different languages. It is commonly observed that two or more individuals engage in very little communication, until both of them learn a common language. This requires investing considerable amount of time as well as effort. Such language barriers are commonly observed when people visit a new country, where learning a new language becomes a cumbersome process (Karliner et al. 2012). Similar difficulties are also experienced while participating in multinational meetings for conferences. This calls for the need of hiring interpreting services, and results in miscommunication. Lack of proficiency in speaking English is considered as a major concern for people as it serves as a barrier in the process of gathering information and seeking assistance (Taylor, Nicolle and Maguire 2013). This can be attribut ed to the fact that if the speaker and receiver fail to use same language, intended meaning of conversation often go misunderstood and misinterpreted. This makes communication ineffective and prevents the actual message from getting conveyed (Meuter et al. 2015). Due to increase in diversity of a nation, a huge number of people belonging to type of linguistic and cultural backgrounds are employed in the healthcare workforce. This results in healthcare providers facing challenges in caring for people speaking different language. Reasons for undertaking research- Removing language barriers has been chosen as the research activity since they create hindrances in the process of delivering equitable and effective health care to all patients. Healthcare professionals most often include migrants who do not speak English as their first language. Most patients belonging to linguistic minority groups also use a different language to communicate during healthcare encounters. Often they have to rely on ability of interpreters in order to understand what treatment is being offered to them (Tenzer, Pudelko and Harzing 2014). Such language discrepancy results in an increase in psychological stress, and gives rise to communication errors in medically significant scenarios. Therefore, it is essential to understand a basic language while communicating details of a disease or its treatment. This research activity will therefore enhance my knowledge on the potential waste that can be explored to remove these barriers. It will increase my awareness on instances that contribute to failure in communication. Miscommunication often results in negative consequences, which lead to failure of the patients to show compliance with prescribed medication (McCarthy et al. 2013). Hence, the research activity will also strengthen nursing practice by eliminating all kinds of barriers that are likely to occur when nursing professionals usea language different from the widely accepted once. Research question/hypothesis Creating provisions for communication skills training for nursing staff will help in reducing medical errors due to miscommunication in the hospital setting. Research objective- Miscommunication in healthcare sector is often life threatening due to the fact that increase number of migrant patients and healthcare staff trained in foreign lands fail to communicate with each other appropriately. Such language barriers not only threaten ability of healthcare professionals to deliver high-quality patient service but also impose various legal risks. Cultural barriers, limited proficiency in English, and lowest literacy has been identified as triple threats that create barriers in effective health communication (Betancourt et al. 2016). Seeking help from nurses who do not speak the official language of English results in lack of access to healthcare services (Mirza et al. 2014). Therefore, patterns of communication and culture are imperative to delivery of holistic health outcomes to every patient. Language is described as the most essential technology of medicine, needed for conducting health care service. Establishing effective communication p rovides the opportunity to all patients present in a health encounter to explore the underlying factors that might have contributed to their disease or illness (Visser, Deliens and Houttekier 2014). It also facilitates their participation with healthcare professionals in determining which aspects of their culture should be kept in mind while formulating therapeutic interventions. Most often first language barriers are overcome by using translators and interpreters. However, presence of such interpreters complicates healthcare encounters by resulting in loss of important communication components like, body language, voice tone, and posture (van Rosse et al. 2016). It also results in a loss of opportunity of the concerned healthcare providers and the client to connect on a personal level beyond spoken words. Thus, language barriers lead to a failure in establishing good rapport and trust between nurse and their clients. Therefore, the research aims to identify effectiveness of communi cation skills training in eliminating language barriers in nursing. It will also explore the impact of such training in preventing medication error and miscommunication, which in turn will directly reduce adverse health events. Another discipline that can be correlated to this particular research activity is associated with patient safety. The discipline of patient safety puts emphasis on safeguarding all patients in healthcare setting, regardless of their cultural and linguistic backgrounds (Okuyama, Wagner and Bijnen 2014). This discipline focuses on adoption of appropriate strategies that reduce rates of medication errors and miscommunication between health care staff and patients (Blume and Board 2013). Effective communication with patients is often considered crucial to their safety. Therefore, barriers in such communication predispose them to adverse health outcomes. Stereotyping patients according to their culture or underestimating effect of cultural differences will interfere in effective communication and result in risky situations (Lindholm et al. 2012). Thus, there is a need to involve the patient safety discipline as well. Sources- Two sources that will be used for gathering information on articles relevant to minimizing language barriers in Healthcare sector are: Cochrane Library- https://www.cochranelibrary.com/ PubMed- https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/ Methods of gathering information- Information gathering will be based on searching appropriate articles from the above-mentioned two sources. The research hypothesis has been kept extremely specific and comprehensive. Literature research will involve use of specific keyword that will help in extracting articles. These keywords include language, linguistic, barriers, hindrances, miscommunication, effective communication, healthcare, nursing, medical error, and medication error. A wide range of Boolean operators such as OR, AND, and NOT will be used to exclude articles that are not relevant to the research hypothesis or have not been published yet. Collection of information on removing language barrier will be based on systematic review owing to the fact that such reviews contain a collection and summarization of several empirical evidences, which meet their eligibility criteria. Furthermore, they investigate validity of findings and risk of bias. Systematic approach A systematic review was conducted to determine the effects of communication skills training on conversation between doctors and their patients. Articles were retrieved from 6 electronic data bases. 20 articles were found to meet the inclusion criteria and focused on communication skills using didactic component strategy, in combination with feedback and practical rehearsal. Although the articles married in the duration of training period, most of the studies showed statistically significant improvement in communication enhancement between doctors and patients. Therefore, results of the systematic review suggested that enhanced communication between patients and doctors should be considered as a public health priority, which requires effective training programs. These trainings enhance communication skills and create an empathetic relationship between doctors and their clients, thereby preventing miscommunication. The systematic review is particularly important for the research activi ty because it will facilitate better understanding of the skills on which healthcare professionals need to be provided training, in order to minimize language barriers (Liu et al. 2015). Another systematic review was conducted to investigate effects of communication skills training while interacting with patients suffering from dementia. An exhaustive search of several electronic data bases such as, AMED, MEDLINE, PsychInfo, and CINAHL resulted in inclusion of 12 trials focused on 831 dementia patients, and more than 500 professional caregivers. Thorough analysis of the results of included trials suggested that communication competencies skills and knowledge of professional, as well as caregivers, while providing health care services to dementia patients, increase positive health outcomes. Professional caregivers also displayed an interest in learning more about their patients, along with an increased enthusiasm on importance of communication. This directly benefited dementia patients and resulted in satisfying interaction (Eggenberger, Heimerl and Bennett 2013). Impacts of communication training model on healthcare services were explored by another study that attempted to evaluate implications of the training on interprofessional communication. The study recruited 306 medical to student and subjected them to a 4 hour long training, which included simulation, didactic session, and feedback. The students were made to work in paediatric, obstetrics and acute words. Significant improvements were found in attitude of the students towards communication, self-motivation, and utility of the provided training. Hence, the study was able to demonstrate positive effects of communication training programs in healthcare settings (Brock et al. 2013). Another observational study was conducted that examined impact of physician communication skills on patient satisfaction. It recruited 1537 physician and subjected them to communication skills that included group skill practice sessions, interactive didactics, and video or life skill demonstrations. An analysis of the results suggested that overall communications scores were higher for physicians present in the intervention group, compared to control. The participants also reported higher satisfaction and showed improvement in empathy and reduced rates of burnout in the intervention group. Hence, the study was able to establish the fact that communication skills training improve patient satisfaction, and reduce physician burnouts (Boissy et al. 2016). Comparison Comparison of two studies, namely, one on effectiveness of communication training model and the other observational study is given in the appendix. Conclusion- Thus, it can be concluded that communication is an essential practice in nursing in order to maintain patient safety, overall health and wellbeing. Due to the fact that nurses form the centre of patient care, it is their primary responsibility to facilitate effective dialogue with clients and their family members. With the aim of assuming more complex roles and caring for culturally diverse clients, nurses will have to strengthen their communication skills. Poor communication skills might result in serious errors, which can directly cost a patient life. In addition to proper speaking and writing, active listening forms another basic component of interpersonal communication. Listening the preferences and demands of patients and communicating with them in a universal language will help the letter to understand that their needs are being cared for. Effective communication is therefore essential to achieve successful outcome of nursing care. Hence, it is imperative for all nu rses to undergo communication skills training that will improve their proficiency in English and help them demonstrate courtesy and sincerity towards their patients. Impact- In order to prevent miscommunication that might lead to medication errors, all nurses should get enrolled in short term communication skills training programs. It will assist them to improve their personal communication in English language for successful interactions (Lebrun 2012). Such training programs will improve their leadership skills, negotiation capabilities and assertiveness. They will be able to better utilize their emotional intelligence and potential in order to end communication conflicts and improve patient satisfaction (Lee, Lee and Ng 2012). It will also help them verbalized exactly what they intend to say, thereby improving clarity. Use The gathered information can be used in workplace by making the hospital administration and higher authorities understand the need to create provisions for the communication skill training or workshop for all healthcare professionals. This will make nurses more competitive by improving their English and will provide them the opportunity to understand how to give presentation and interact with patients while explaining diagnosis and proposed intervention (Lion et al. 2013). It will also help in understanding proper use of voice tone, gestures and body language, thereby increasing capability of handling conflicting situations. Reflection- The research activity helped me realize that in order to be a successful nurse, the primary criteria is related to effective communication skills. Excellent capability in connecting and communicating with patients helps in fostering healthy relationship, provide high level of healthcare services, and prevent medication errors. I understood that thousands of preventable medical errors according annually can be eliminated if nurses are engaged in efficient conversation with their clients. Therefore, I realize the need of implementing training programs in workplace that will help to prevent miscommunication and related events which worsen patient condition or cause permanent harm. Issues- There is a need to conduct for the research on cost effectiveness of this communication skills program as various nurses might not be able to afford their services. Implementation of cost effective training programs will lead to enrolment of more number of nursing professionals thereby improving positive outcome and patient satisfaction. References Betancourt, J.R., Green, A.R., Carrillo, J.E. and Owusu Ananeh-Firempong, I.I., 2016. Defining cultural competence: a practical framework for addressing racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care.Public health reports. Binder, P., Born, Y., Johnsdotter, S. and Essn, B., 2012. Shared language is essential: communication in a multiethnic obstetric care setting.Journal of health communication,17(10), pp.1171-1186. Blume, A. and Board, O., 2013. Language barriers.Econometrica,81(2), pp.781-812. Boissy, A., Windover, A.K., Bokar, D., Karafa, M., Neuendorf, K., Frankel, R.M., Merlino, J. and Rothberg, M.B., 2016. Communication skills training for physicians improves patient satisfaction.Journal of general internal medicine,31(7), pp.755-761. Brock, D., Abu-Rish, E., Chiu, C.R., Hammer, D., Wilson, S., Vorvick, L., Blondon, K., Schaad, D., Liner, D. and Zierler, B., 2013. Republished: interprofessional education in team communication: working together to improve patient safety.Postgraduate medical journal,89(1057), pp.642-651. Eggenberger, E., Heimerl, K. and Bennett, M.I., 2013. Communication skills training in dementia care: a systematic review of effectiveness, training content, and didactic methods in different care settings.International Psychogeriatrics,25(3), pp.345-358. Karliner, L.S., Auerbach, A., Npoles, A., Schillinger, D., Nickleach, D. and Prez-Stable, E.J., 2012. Language barriers and understanding of hospital discharge instructions.Medical care,50(4), p.283. Lebrun, L.A., 2012. Effects of length of stay and language proficiency on health care experiences among immigrants in Canada and the United States.Social science medicine,74(7), pp.1062-1072. Lee, Y.K., Lee, P.Y. and Ng, C.J., 2012. A qualitative study on healthcare professionals perceived barriers to insulin initiation in a multi-ethnic population.BMC family practice,13(1), p.28. Lindholm, M., Hargraves, J.L., Ferguson, W.J. and Reed, G., 2012. Professional language interpretation and inpatient length of stay and readmission rates.Journal of general internal medicine,27(10), pp.1294-1299. Lion, K.C., Rafton, S.A., Shafii, J., Brownstein, D., Michel, E., Tolman, M. and Ebel, B.E., 2013. Association between language, serious adverse events, and length of stay among hospitalized children.Hospital pediatrics,3(3), pp.219-225. Liu, X., Rohrer, W., Luo, A., Fang, Z., He, T. and Xie, W., 2015. Doctorpatient communication skills training in mainland China: A systematic review of the literature.Patient education and counseling,98(1), pp.3-14. McCarthy, J., Cassidy, I., Graham, M.M. and Tuohy, D., 2013. Conversations through barriers of language and interpretation.British journal of nursing,22(6), pp.335-339. Meuter, R.F., Gallois, C., Segalowitz, N.S., Ryder, A.G. and Hocking, J., 2015. Overcoming language barriers in healthcare: A protocol for investigating safe and effective communication when patients or clinicians use a second language.BMC health services research,15(1), p.371. Mirza, M., Luna, R., Mathews, B., Hasnain, R., Hebert, E., Niebauer, A. and Mishra, U.D., 2014. Barriers to healthcare access among refugees with disabilities and chronic health conditions resettled in the US Midwest.Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health,16(4), pp.733-742. Okuyama, A., Wagner, C. and Bijnen, B., 2014. Speaking up for patient safety by hospital-based health care professionals: a literature review.BMC health services research,14(1), p.61. Taylor, S.P., Nicolle, C. and Maguire, M., 2013. Cross-cultural communication barriers in health care.Nursing Standard (through 2013),27(31), p.35. Tenzer, H., Pudelko, M. and Harzing, A.W., 2014. The impact of language barriers on trust formation in multinational teams.Journal of International Business Studies,45(5), pp.508-535. van Rosse, F., de Bruijne, M., Suurmond, J., Essink-Bot, M.L. and Wagner, C., 2016. Language barriers and patient safety risks in hospital care. A mixed methods study.International journal of nursing studies,54, pp.45-53. Visser, M., Deliens, L. and Houttekier, D., 2014. Physician-related barriers to communication and patient-and family-centred decision-making towards the end of life in intensive care: a systematic review.Critical Care,18(6), p.604.
Saturday, April 11, 2020
An Inspector Calls by JB Priestly A ficional response to compleation Essays An Inspector Calls by JB Priestly A ficional response to compleation Paper An Inspector Calls by JB Priestly A ficional response to compleation Paper Essay Topic: Literature I have just finished writing a play called An Inspector Calls. It is about an affluent, middle class family living in Brumley a city in the North of England. The head of the family is Mr. Birling who owns a factory. He is not very charitable and believes that a person should look after themselves only. He is going to find out during the course of the play that that might not be the best a attitude to take. Birlings daughter Shelia is getting married to sir Gerald Croft whose father Lord Croft owns a rival factory to Birling. The marriage is like a business alliance. The birling family are trying to social climb and beter themselves and are hopeful that the marriage will help this process along I set the play in 1912 so I could duse dramatic irony in the play. It was before any of the world wars which helped partially break down class barriers. The birlings are still living in a very class conscious age and before a socialist government. Birling in particular uses dramatic irony in some of the things he says the titanic bsolutely unsinkable the audience would realise straight away that that statement was completely wrong. Iw anted to do this because if birling was wrong about things he says his beliefs might also be questionable. The main theme of my play concerns a young girl who has had dealings with all of the birling family and goes on to commit suicide. The girl Eva Smith represents the working class ordinary people who do not have lots of money. The birlings represent the middles classes who have lots of money and servants, they are seen as a respectable family. Eva Smith is poor and struggling and therefore has low status. My point is to show that their dealings were the cause of her s suicide. As a result of a police investigation in to the suicide an inspector visits the house where the family are celebrating Shelias engement to Gerald. The family are in for a nasty shock when the truth about what they have done comes out. To illustrate my point Im going to describe to you in detail the scene is in Act three. It is after the inspector has made his final key speech. He warns of how we dont live alone. We are members of one body. We are responsible for each other. I wanted to spell it out to members of my predominaly middle class audience that this is what I was trying to say during the play. The inspector threatens a revolution if men will not learn that lesson, then they will taught it in fire and blood and anguish. I know this is a very serious and highly controversial thing to say and must feel like Im lecturing them. It makes the point that not taking responsibility for your actions, not thinking of others can have severe consequences even death. The inspector leave straight after this speech which I think delivers a big impact. He leaves the Birlings alone to deal with what they have done. There are lots of stage directions after the speech because I felt this was a very important part in the play and I wanted to heighten the dramatic tension the family are all staring subdued and wondering. I detail exactly what each person should be doing, Shelia is crying, Mrs Birling has collapsed into a chair, Eric is brooding desperately and Mr birling is not quite sure what to do so gets himself a drink. He is the first one to break the silence but not to say anything positive (angrily to Eric) youre the one I blame for this. Eric is not bothered by this comment I ll bet I am implying he frequently gets the blame for things that go wrong in the Birling house hold. Erics response shows his mood is different from the beginning of the play. Then he was very relaxed and suddenly guffaws during dinner . Eric was not in a serous mood and behaving in a silly way. He seems to have become serious by act three because of the events that have been uncovered. The family are now left alone in the house with Gerald and the Inspector gone. This scene highlights clearly the differences between Mr Birling and his son Eric. They have a strained relationship. Erics attitude is Oh for Gods sake! What does it matter now whether they give you a knighthood or not? . Birlings beliefs are in the status quo and he also wants to be respectable. Eric however does not care about appearing respectable he cares about Smith. Eric political beliefs lean left. Father and son have directly opposing political beliefs. Mr and Mrs Birling think very differently from their children. Sheila seems to be speaking for the inspector I behaved badly too. I know I did. Im ashamed of it. But now youre beginning all over again to pretend that NOTHING MUCH HADS HAPPENED Mr and mrs birling are acting as they were before the inspector called they have not learnt anything from the experience theres every excuse for what both your mother and I did says birling. Birling is worried because Nothing much has happened havent I already said therell bea public scandal. Something bad has happened and it is the death of a young girl which is far more important than what the neighbours think. Sheila begins to think that maybe the inspector was not a real police inspector It doesnt matter much now, of course but was he really a police inspector? . I thought adding in the element of him not really being police inspector but a ghost of some kind would add even more emphasis the fact even more that it does not matter who found out what the birlings had to done to Smith, they still did it. It matters to Mr Birling if he was really a police inspector it matters a devil of a lot. Makes all the difference because if anyone found out he would lose his chance of a knighthood. This is further point of friction between the older and younger Birlings. Shelia and Eric are young and could chance and see where things were going wrong. It doesnt matters them that the inspector might not have been genuine. Birling thinks now hes not to blame. Shelia sums it up by saying But dont you see if all thats come out tonight is true, then it doesnt much matter who it was who it was that made us confess. There is a big contrast between this scene in Act three and the Act One. Birling reflects what I was feeling when the fire of us down to dinner a that table. I refer back to act to show the contrast in the familys relationships. The children are now at odds with their parents their attitudes. Eric says in response to Birling when you were feeling so pleased with Yourself? You told us a man has to make his own way we werent to take any notice of these cranks walked in. he cranks Eric is referring to myself I am aware that at this time some people thought of the socialists as cranks but that is an out dated tone and we are governed by these cranks. It is obvious by this stage that Eric is getting more and more angry and has a sarcastic tone of voice. I put in the stage directions that Eric laughs bitterly I tried to give the impression that Eric was completely un-nerved by the whole experience and could at any moment breakdown. He felt bad about the part he played in Eva Smiths death. I thought this would add an element of tension to the play. To stage the play I would recommend keeping the furniture on the to the minimum. There should be a large table with chairs around it. There could be a decanter and some glasses on a small table to the side of the set. I also recommend that light changes when the inspector leaves. It should become slightly darker to illustrate the change in the play. The mood has changed the birlings and tired and emotional and have to deal with the consequences of their actions. During the scene Ive just described most of the characters are standing around not quite sure what to do. The chairs should not be neatly pushed under the table but pulled out and at odd angles because this would fit in well with the scene. The inspector has just dropped a bomb shell and the stage should reflect this. The characters in the play have all had things exposed about then that they thought were secret. How they deal with these things are important Shelia for example feels remorse about what she at Milwards shop getting Eva Smith sacked . She has learnt from this experience to think of others more. After the In spector leaves she acts a s his mouthpiece, she makes a speech a at the end remaining the family of what they have done, as I imagine the inspector would do You turned the girl out of one job and I had her turned out of another. Gerald kept her at a time when he was supposed to be too busy too see me. Eric also feels bad about what he did and is in trouble for stealing money to give to Smith. He is not worried about the money but what happened to Smith in the end. Birling is annoyed by the whole experience and is especially annoyed about the money that Eric stole until every penny of that money you stole is repaid, youll work for nothing. Mrs Birling like Birling is angry and also thinks that Eric . Im ashamed of you. Eric points out that he is ashamed of you as well because of his parents lack of compassion. Birling is ashamed of Eric because he stole from him and did not come to him for help. He is not so worried that Eric was involved with a prostitute and had fathered a child. He said to Shelia when he found out about Gerald had been involved with a prostitute Sheila, a lot of young men . Eric is ashamed that he was responsible for the death of a person and that he could not help her. I believe the scene I have just described is important because this is when the inspector says exactly what he thinks. Before he had been fairly impartial. It is also the point where the family realise the inspector is not real. We also see the family alone without Gerald or the Inspector. I wanted to show in the play that compassion and understanding must start at home if it to be shown to the rest of the society. Birling and Eric are an example of conflict within the family unit.
Tuesday, March 10, 2020
Useful Essay Writing Tips on Any Topic How to Write a Brilliant Essay despite the Topic You may be the best research paper writer and face difficulties when completing an editorial at the same time. There is no magic formula for all academic assignments. They are different and comes with different requirements, languages and writing styles. However, there is a way to write brilliant essay papers of any type despite the topic. All you need is to think creatively and encourage your readers to explore and debate the topic. This is what we are going to learn in this particular article. Apart from keeping an eye on the shape of the paper, you also need to highlight your writing professionalism in every line. These parameters are clear. What are the other aspects to include in the academic paper? Analyze and Explore Ã¢â¬â carry out the research and explore the information you have found. Become an expert on the topic, Use as many available sources as you can; Write a Thesis Statement Ã¢â¬â writing a brilliant paper is impossible without a strong thesis statement. So, the next stage is to learn how to write a good thesis; Essay Examples Ã¢â¬â the global web comes as an endless source of useful information. Simply browse top writing website to find essay samples; Introduction and Conclusion Ã¢â¬â write them after you are done with the body paragraphs. Such approach results in better understanding of the topic as well as core ideas to indicate in the first and last paragraphs; Format your Paper Ã¢â¬â this is probably the toughest challenge. You need to learn all major formatting styles including APA, MLA, Chicago, Harvard, etc.; Proofread and Double-Check Your Paper Ã¢â¬â a brilliant essay should never contain the slightest hint of grammar or punctuation mistakes. Ask your friends to revise the paper or hire professional native-speaking editors. Now you are 100% ready to start the writing process and produce a solid content despite the topic. If you still have difficulties when getting started, hiring professional writing services is probably the best bet for you. How to overcome writing challenges? Essay writing is certainly a daunting task for thousands of students across the world. It is not just because they are bad at writing. The difficulties appear with every new type of paper and topic we need to handle. On the other hand, here are some tips that will definitely put an ease on the writing process: Plan Ahead Ã¢â¬â never strive to complete the paper two or three days before the deadline. The exploration process and research are more time-consuming than they seem. Plan your steps ahead and reserve some time for editing and revisions; Explore All Sources Ã¢â¬â find as many sources related to the topic as you can. Go online and check for articles, books, and other publications to support your point of view. At least you will have something to write about; Make a Plan Ã¢â¬â a good start is to conduct a clear outline. It will be your plan. Stick to it and make the writing process easier; Avoid Plagiarism Ã¢â¬â the slightest sign of plagiarism will doom your paper to academic failure. You can use special online services both free and paid to check and eliminate plagiarism. Or you can simply ask professional writers to complete your essay for you. They will deliver your paper on time without any mistakes. It will contain all structural elements and be 100% plagiarism-free. The option is certainly worth considering.
Sunday, February 23, 2020
Roman Empire - Essay Example 136 ) marks a significant episode in RomeÃ¢â¬â¢s military history, for they nearly lost the war to Hannibal, a great Carthaginian general. With the defeat of Hannibal at Zama by the Roman general Scipio, and the experience gained during the war, Rome appears to have learnt a lot from it and harbored bitter feelings at least for Carthage for the damages Hannibal caused; ravaging much of their homeland and leaving it in a deplorable state. The effect of this was to be seen in the manner in which Rome later formulated strategies, for tactical reasons, in handling her allies and foes in an attempt to expand and consolidate her empire. Indeed, it is the Punic wars that saw the rise of the Roman Empire and echoed the thud falling of the republic. With the fall of Carthage, The Romans inflicted severe punishment on her, an attempt which was meant to ensure that Carthage remained subservient. In the treaty signed between the two, Carthage agreed to ScipioÃ¢â¬â¢s terms which required her to pay Rome an indemnity of 10,000 talents in the subsequent five decades. In addition, Carthage was not to enter into any war without RomeÃ¢â¬â¢s consent and was to surrender her navy; all her warships and elephants (Koeller 2005).This defeat, coupled with the unfriendly ScipioÃ¢â¬â¢s terms, humbled Carthage and the Romans felt that the punishment rendered her toothless and that she was never to bite again, leave alone bark at Rome. In using this approach, Rome successfully managed to tame and robe Carthage of her political power making her to coil her tail, but not for long. Rome was not done with Carthage just yet. In a move seen as one to expand its empire, Rome turned its rage on the Kingdoms that did offer support to Hannibal during the war. Such were the kingdom of Macedon and some parts of Greece .This also saw the Mediterranean islands and Spain cede to Rome. Another score card at RomeÃ¢â¬â¢s disposal that came into effect during this period was the adoption of a rapa cious and brutal foreign policy: diplomacy based on trickery rather than on true valor. Lewis and Reinhold 1990 p. 202-203 provides succinctly how Rome, with their act of deceit, hoodwinked king Perseus, tactfully, with a scheme that saw him disadvantaged in a war Rome undeservingly won. Reporting their mission to the senate, notes Reinhold and Lewis, Marcius and Atillus were acknowledged for having shown skillful management in the execution of their mandate and their mission was approved. Though not a unilateral senate decision (with the older senators not amused with this decision terming it contrary to Roman traditions), the cunning diplomacy saw the day. It is in light of the above perhaps, that ruthless oppression became synonymous to Roman rule as seen in the acts of such individuals as Servius Salpicius Galba, the praetor of Farther Spain. Galba, during the war with the Lusitanians, committed a terrible atrocity, one which Reinhold terms as Ã¢â¬Ëtreacherous annihilation of a disarmed populace.Ã¢â¬â¢ Disguised as a peace maker and a sympathizer to the Lusitanians, Galba cunningly laid a snare in which his prey unsuspectingly got trapped. Defenseless and disadvantaged as they were, the Lusitanians were easily slewed by the Roman soldiers. This unfriendly RomeÃ¢â¬â¢s foreign policy subjected onto uninviting kingdoms appears to have worked in RomeÃ¢â¬â¢